Barbecue_ a trip through the south explores the african american ties to a beloved traditional cuisine _ national post

When Larry Bethune, 64, looks out at the neighbourhood from Brenda’s Bar-B-Que Pit in Montgomery, Ala., he sees what isn’t there. Quick and easy homemade pasta sauce “Used to be a gas station over there,” he says, pointing to a weedy lot. Tomato pasta sauce thermomix “Another gas station, there. Best homemade spaghetti meat sauce There, a grocery store. Homemade pasta sauce recipe from scratch Another grocery store, there. 4 cheese sauce recipe for pasta A candy store.” He pauses. Homemade pasta sauce from fresh tomatoes “Used to be a little town around here.”

That was back when Bethune was growing up. How to make homemade pasta sauce His parents, Larry James and Jereline Bethune, opened Brenda’s in 1942. Tomato pasta sauce calories Jereline, who ran Brenda’s for decades after her husband died in 1956, named it after her second daughter.

A lot has happened since opening day: the Second World War, with its segregated army.

Homemade italian pasta sauce Jim Crow, a system that enforced racial separation and all but kept blacks from voting. Homemade spaghetti sauce from scratch for canning In , there was the famous bus boycott, begun 60 years ago last December when Rosa Parks was arrested and fined for not surrendering her seat to a white person on a Montgomery bus. Easy homemade pasta sauce Helping to organize the boycott that ensued — culminating in the Supreme Court’s decision ordering Montgomery to integrate its bus system — was a young preacher named Martin Luther King Jr.

Brenda’s, which started out as a nightclub that sold food, became a focal point for civil rights movement activity. Best homemade spaghetti meat sauce recipe “My mother and my sister and my auntie would help the NAACP,” Bethune recalls, standing on a patch of concrete in front of the tiny take-out joint. Tomato pasta sauce for meatballs “We had a printing machine, and we could put out fliers about when different meetings were going to be. Homemade spaghetti sauce from canned tomatoes At the time, there was a fence back there, so you couldn’t see in the back.”

There could be trouble if their activities, though perfectly legal, were discovered. Sauce for pasta not tomato “Ku Klux Klan was still around in those days,” Bethune says.

Brenda’s, with smoke from its all-wood indoor pit wafting skyward, has survived all of that: the active suppression of voting rights, the open hostility by some whites, the neighbourhood disintegration. Making a tomato sauce for pasta These many years later, the resilience of Brenda’s, which employs Jereline’s grandchildren, exemplifies the depth of tradition that barbecue represents. Sauce for pasta crossword clue It carries on a culinary heritage that goes back centuries and helps define the indelible contribution to American cuisine made by African Americans.

“Rebellion food” is what Michael Twitty calls barbecue. Homemade pasta bake sauce recipe Twitty’s first book, “ The Cooking Gene,” based on his project to discover his own roots and the roots of African American cooking, will be published this year. Homemade tomato spaghetti sauce recipe And barbecue has been the subject of a sizeable piece of his research. Easy homemade spaghetti sauce “The golden age of the plantation culture coincided with the Enlightenment, the birth of the industrial revolution and scientific racism,” he says. Sauce for pasta without tomatoes “Every way of doing this — digging a hole, putting sticks over it, putting an animal over it, butchering a cow or a pig — every way of doing this ran contrary to this beautiful, organized, almost mathematical type of culture.”

At the recommendation of locals, I visited Brenda’s, where I ate a spectacular pulled pork sandwich on the hood of my car, while traveling through the South last year to check out the state of black-owned barbecue restaurants. Simple homemade pasta sauce Why take such a trip? First, to assess the claim bandied about in barbecue circles that such joints are dying. Homemade red pasta sauce recipe Second, because 50 years after such landmark civil rights events as the passage of the Voting Rights Act, and in the midst of the Black Lives Matter movement, barbecue offers a lens onto race.

To be sure, others besides blacks have played a significant role in the development of what we have come to see as a peculiarly American version of smoked meat: low-and-slow cooking of animal parts, such as pork shoulder and beef brisket. Fresh tomato pasta sauce recipe nz Many credit American Indians with establishing the template for what would be known as American barbecue. Homemade pasta sauce fresh tomatoes A Spanish explorer in the early 1500s named Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés described the Indians of Hispaniola (today, Haiti and Dominican Republic) cooking food above a slow, smoky fire on a platform of green sticks. Homemade spaghetti sauce from scratch He called the device “barbacoa,” an approximation of the pronunciation of the indigenous Taino people, and the word was later anglicized. Fresh tomato pasta sauce recipe jamie oliver Germans helped define barbecue in Texas and South Carolina. Recipe for tomato sauce for pasta using fresh tomatoes Mexicans in South Texas contributed barbacoa, a linguistic reverberation of the earliest days, which now refers to a cow’s head wrapped in magay leaves and buried in the ground to cook along with fire embers for hours and hours (although these days, Mexican barbacoa typically is steamed).

“Barbecue is a quintessential American cuisine,” says Lolis Eric Elie, author of “ Smokestack Lightning: Adventures in the Heart of Barbecue Country.” “When we talk about a melting pot, barbecue embraces traditions many other cuisines don’t. Fresh pasta sauce from scratch African ingredients. Sauce for pasta and vegetables Caribbean ingredients. Homemade spaghetti sauce from scratch recipe It has a democratic impulse, because it is informal, and often we eat it with our hands, and it cuts across class lines.”

But from the early days of the country, blacks have been associated with barbecue more than any other group. Making homemade pasta sauce Arriving as slaves, they brought their knowledge of smoking meats from West Africa and mated it with the methods and foods of the New World. Homemade italian sauce for pasta In the 1700s, blacks dug the trenches, prepared the meat and tended the fires of barbecues for political and social events. Homemade pasta sauce canned tomatoes In the 1800s, politicians threw large barbecues to court votes. Tomato pasta sauce with cream Again, slaves cooked the barbecue. How to make homemade pasta sauce from scratch Later, in the early 1900s, barbecue provided blacks a vehicle to gain a commercial foothold. Homemade easy pasta sauce In Kansas City, Mo., an African American man, Henry Perry, became the “father of Kansas City barbecue” when he began selling smoked beef and wild game in a peppery sauce. Homemade pasta sauce crock pot Two landmark places with ties to Perry were both founded by African Americans: The famed Arthur Bryant’s started in the 1920s, and the local six-outlet chain Gates and Sons Bar-B-Q was established in 1946.

More common, though, are white-owned barbecue restaurants with blacks doing the cooking — and rarely getting the credit. Homemade pasta sauce recipe A few black pitmasters have achieved acclaim, including, most notably, Rodney Scott of Scott’s Bar-B-Que in Hemingway, S.C., and Ed Mitchell, formerly of the Pit in Raleigh. White sauce recipe for pasta and chicken Largely, though, they are invisible. Tomato sauce recipe for pasta easy The same can be said of black-owned barbecue restaurants, which the media often overlook in the current barbecue boom, spotlighting instead what food writer and barbecue expert Robb Walsh called “white hipster males” in a First We Feast article last year.

Few, for example, have heard of Lannie’s Bar-B-Q Spot in Selma. Homemade pasta sauce in crockpot As the day turned to night, I sat with Deborah Hatcher, 61, in a booth at the black-owned restaurant. Homemade pasta sauce for lasagna Lannie’s is a meticulously maintained, high-ceilinged, white-walled neighbourhood restaurant around 75 years old. Homemade pasta and sauce No one knows the age for sure. Homemade pasta sauce food network Hatcher is the granddaughter of founder Lannie Travis and the daughter of current owner Lula Hatcher.

Small, black-owned, family-run barbecue restaurants have a tough time lasting beyond two generations. Homemade spaghetti sauce from scratch food network Children seek a less demanding career. Homemade tomato sauce for pasta The economics of ever-increasing wood and meat costs in a fiercely competitive business environment create challenges for getting loans to make necessary upgrades. Homemade pasta sauce using fresh tomatoes But one of the Jacksons’ two sons and a granddaughter work at McMillan, providing Carolyn a sense of security. Tomato pasta sauce jamie oliver “Will there be a third generation?” she says, repeating my question. Easy homemade sauce for pasta “Yes. Best homemade spaghetti sauce using fresh tomatoes Definitely.”

In northern Alabama in a town called Florence, I pulled into the the teeny Bunyan’s Bar-B-Q, known for its sensational mustard-based hot slaw. Homemade tomato pasta sauce using fresh tomatoes While marvelling at its flavour, I chewed on the improvisational nature of barbecue. Homemade meat pasta sauce Indeed, Twitty calls barbecue “edible jazz.”

Nowhere is improvisation more on display than in Memphis. Make homemade pasta sauce Barbecue spaghetti, one of the city’s signature dishes, got its start at the black-owned Bar-B-Q Shop. Tomato pasta sauce brands Black pitmaster Desiree Robinson at the humble Cozy Corner is famous for her barbecue bologna and Cornish hen. Homemade pasta and sauce recipe Meanwhile, the funky third-generation black-owned Payne’s Bar-B-Q’s take on the pork sandwich — gigantic, lightly sauced, crunch-happy and crowned with a landslide of mustard-based coleslaw — sets the standard.

I started my trip in Atlanta, King’s birthplace. Homemade spaghetti sauce recipe no meat King discussed strategy with his lieutenants over ribs at the hole-in-the-wall Aleck’s Barbecue Heaven. Easy homemade tomato pasta sauce recipe Aleck’s had a few seats at the counter and three, maybe four, booths. Easy homemade spaghetti sauce with meat One of them had a huge wreath resting on it, memorializing King.

Aleck’s closed years ago. Homemade white sauce for pasta So have many other neighbourhood black-owned barbecue joints in Atlanta, including Wyolene’s and the venerable Auburn Rib Shack. Homemade pasta sauce slow cooker But you can still get pulled pork smoked in an all-wood-fueled pit at Hodge’s, where King also is said to have eaten. Sauce for pasta noodles And you can still enjoy one heck of a slab of ribs and rib tips at JJ’s Rib Shack, where the delicious meat is cooked over charcoal and wood in a long, homemade metal pit.

At Tony Morrow’s Real Pit BBQ, tradition and modernity blend. Homemade pasta sauce quick Booths are sheathed in horsehide, and the sound system plays old R&B. Homemade spaghetti sauce from whole tomatoes Morrow pays homage to his late grandfather, an Alabama pitmaster. Homemade tomato sauce for pasta recipe To the traditional offerings, Morrow adds delicious lemon-pepper ribs and moist red velvet cupcakes.

Morrow’s old-and-new approach hints at the future as it embraces the past. Tomato pasta sauce recipe nz The route to that future winds backward through time, from even before the earliest days of slavery through the civil rights movement to the modern day.

My journey took me to scores of places, including several white-owned ones: Hancock’s in Selma, which fed blacks and whites alike during the Montgomery march. Homemade pasta sauce without tomatoes The now-closed Ollie’s in Birmingham, which inadvertently upheld the Civil Rights Act of 1964 when the Supreme Court found against its anti-integration argument. Homemade pasta sauce from garden tomatoes The Rendezvous, a place that stayed in downtown Memphis when other businesses fled to the suburbs after the riots that wrenched the city after King’s death.

Everywhere I went, the sweet, rich smell in my car wafting up from clamshells of half-finished ribs, pork sandwiches, collards and banana pudding was redolent of heritage.

Are black-owned barbecue restaurants going extinct? It’s hard to say. Homemade pasta sauce recipe with fresh tomatoes Numbers for them don’t exist and never did. Homemade pasta sauce with tomato sauce But my travels have persuaded me that there are more second- and third-generation black-owned barbecue restaurants than the world probably realizes. Tomato pasta sauce recipe italian Just as the world doesn’t fully realize the breadth of a largely invisible legacy.

This is Jim Shahin’s take on the spicy, mustard-based “hot slaw” served at Bunyan’s Bar-B-Q in Florence, Ala. Homemade pasta sauce for baby The restaurant uses its slaw on pulled or chopped pork sandwiches and deep-fried hot dogs; we recommend it as a side dish, as well.

2. Homemade spaghetti sauce recipe with garden tomatoes Combine the vinegar, dark brown sugar, salt, pepper and hot sauce in a small saucepan over medium heat; cook for about 3 minutes, stirring, until the sugar has dissolved and the mixture is thoroughly heated through. Homemade pasta sauce with tomato paste Taste, and add more hot sauce, as needed.

Nutrition | Per serving (based on 8): 50 calories, 1 g protein, 13 g carbohydrates, 0 g fat, 0 g saturated fat, 0 mg cholesterol, 430 mg sodium, 3 g dietary fibre, 10 g sugar

This recipe was inspired by the greens served at McMillan Bar-B-Que in Mobile, Ala., where the secret flavouring ingredient is — smoked pig tail. Quick homemade pasta sauce recipe Here, Jim Shahin offers options on the choice of meat; adding it to the cooking liquid before the greens go in deepens the flavour of the greens and their liquor.

1. Homemade spaghetti sauce recipe from scratch Bring the water to a boil in a pot over medium-high heat, then add the smoked meat of your choice, whole (unless you are using bacon, which gets cut into pieces). Homemade pasta sauce nz Reduce the heat to medium or medium-low so the liquid is barely bubbling; cook for 45 minutes, skimming off any foam that forms on the surface.

2. Best homemade spaghetti sauce recipe from scratch Meanwhile, place the collard greens in a colander or bowl. Easy homemade cheese sauce for pasta Rinse them 3 times to make sure all grit is gone. Homemade pasta sauce tomato Hold the greens vertically, then tear the leaves from the stems, discarding the latter. Recipe for homemade tomato pasta sauce Stack the leaves, then cut them into 1-inch squares.

3. Sauce for pasta and salmon Add the greens to the pot, along with the garlic, onion, vinegar, the teaspoon of salt, the 1/2 teaspoon of pepper and the hot pepper sauce (to taste), if using; increase the heat to medium-high just to bring to a boil, then reduce the heat to medium or medium-low and cook for 30 to 45 minutes, depending on how tender you like your greens.

Nutrition | Per serving (using bacon): 270 calories, 10 g protein, 8 g carbohydrates, 23 g fat, 8 g saturated fat, 35 mg cholesterol, 980 mg sodium, 0 g dietary fibre, 0 g sugar